Last week the FTC announced it had settled with mobile advertising platform Tapjoy regarding allegations that it failed to provide in-game rewards that users were promised for completing advertising offers. Commissioners Rohit Chopra and Rebecca Kelly Slaughter also issued a Joint Statement on the settlement, criticizing mobile app “gatekeepers” for excessive “rent extraction” from mobile gaming apps, which they believe has forced developers to adopt alternative – and often harmful – means of generating revenue, such as loyalty offers and loot boxes. The settlement, and particularly the separate concurrence written by Democratic Commissioners Rohit Chopra and Rebecca Slaughter, highlights the increased scrutiny over the entire mobile gaming ecosystem and the various businesses that operate within it.

Tapjoy operates a mobile advertising platform, acting as a middleman between advertisers, gamers, and game developers. The platform integrates “offers” into mobile games, promising users in-game currency and other rewards for completing the offers and promising developers a percentage of Tapjoy’s advertising revenue. Advertisers pay Tapjoy for each consumer who is induced to complete an offer, which often requires users to submit personal information or spend money, for example, by purchasing a product, enrolling in a continuity program, or completing a survey. Other offer requirements may include downloading an additional app or watching a short video.


Continue Reading FTC Cracks Down on Mobile Gaming Middlemen Offering In-Game Rewards and Offers

The FTC recently released its staff perspective paper on video game loot boxes. The report details discussions from the FTC’s loot box workshop that took place in August last year, summarizing key points and takeaways. You can read our write up of the workshop here.

The workshop, “Inside the Game,” brought video game industry representatives, researchers, and consumer advocates together to examine consumer protection issues related to loot boxes and related microtransactions in video games.

A loot box is a digital container of virtual goods that a user can purchase in-game using real‑world currency. A user does not know what is in the loot box before purchasing. The loot box may contain digital goods (such as character skins, tools, weapons, etc.) that the user can use in the game. Importantly, the user cannot choose the contents of the loot box. The box could contain an extremely rare/sought-after item or the contents could be a collection of items already owned by the user (or somewhere in between).


Continue Reading FTC Scrutinizes Loot Boxes – What are the Odds?

On August 7, 2019, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) held a workshop examining consumer protection issues related to “loot boxes” in video games in Washington, DC. Loot boxes are digital containers of virtual goods that a user can purchase in-game using real-world currency or earn based on meeting certain in-game milestones. A user does not know what is in the loot box before purchasing. It may contain digital goods (such as character skins, tools, weapons, etc.) that the user can use in the game. Importantly, the user cannot choose the contents of the loot box. The box could contain an extremely rare/sought-after item, or the contents could be a collection of items already owned by the user (or somewhere in between).

Loot boxes are a form of micro-transaction that video game manufactures rely upon to offset the cost of game development, which, as explained in the workshop, has risen from tens of thousands of dollars to, in some cases, hundreds of millions of dollars. However, the FTC and other consumer groups are concerned that these transactions may come as a surprise to consumers (especially parents of small children) if they are not properly and clearly disclosed.


Continue Reading FTC Gathers Video Game Industry to Talk Loot Boxes

The Commissioners of the FTC agreed, during an oversight hearing on November 27, 2018, to investigate the use of “loot boxes” in video games. Senator Hassan (D-NH), following up on questions she asked the newly appointed Commissioners during their confirmation hearings, specifically requested the FTC investigate loot boxes citing addiction concerns, (especially as it relates to children) and the resemblance of loot boxes in video games to gambling.

A loot box is a digital container of virtual goods that a user can purchase in-game using real-world currency. A user does not know what is in the loot box before purchasing. The loot box may contain digital goods (such as character skins, tools, weapons, etc.) that the user can use in the game. Importantly, the user cannot choose the contents of the loot box. The box could contain an extremely rare/sought-after item or the contents could be a collection of items already owned by the user (or somewhere in between).


Continue Reading The FTC is Searching for the Value in Loot